Published papers

Published papers

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Research area: Start-up creation and success

Necessity entrepreneurship and industry choice in new firm creation

Necessity entrepreneurship and industry choice in new firm creation

Necessity entrepreneurs - individuals who create new firms because they have no other options for work - represent a substantial proportion of world‐wide entrepreneurial activity, and, in developed countries, often come from the ranks of the unemployed. We analyze these entrepreneurs by answering the question "what business should I be in?", a fundamental strategic decision that founders make.Our findings reveal that duration in unemployment is a key, hitherto unexamined factor that systematically affects the industry‐choice decision in startups. Moreover, we find that duration of unemployment moderates the founder's industry experience and the attractiveness of external opportunities relative to those in the “home” industry, with a markedly different picture for the long‐term unemployed—suggesting the need for customized government policies for formerly unemployed entrepreneurs.

This paper has been published in the Strategic Management Journal and is co-written with John C. Dencker, Northeastern, USA, and Marc Gruber, EPFL, Switzerland.

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Researcher: Argyro (Iro) Nikiforou

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Research area: Start-up creation and success

Hybrid nascent entrepreneurship

With the rise of the gig-economy and side-hustles, hybrid entrepreneurship – concurrently running a business while employed – is becoming increasingly common. While prior studies suggest hybrid entrepreneurship might be beneficial by providing job security during transition to full-time entrepreneurship, we caution that hybrid entrepreneurship can represent a dual sword for potential entrepreneurs. Our findings suggest that entrepreneurs should avoid simultaneously look for a job new job while attempting to start a business, as it is strongly detrimental to start-up chances. This is especially true for individuals who are part-time employed, unemployed and/or those with strong managerial experience – whom have a stronger tendency to do so.

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Researcher: Carina Lomberg

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RESEARCH AREA: entrepreneurial teams

What can the body tell you about affect in team conflict?

What can the body tell you about affect in team conflict? Using biometric data to study conflict

We introduce a new way of understanding the emotions in organizational conflict, showing that all types of conflict elicit much more emotion than previously thought. Building upon knowledge from psychology research—specifically, relationship psychology—we theorize all conflict as affective, dynamic and constantly changing. We suggest a framework for examining dynamic changes in affect during conflict. We empirically test this framework by capturing fluctuation of affective states through the measurement of facial expressions, biometric responses and self-reported affect during the entire conflict situation from 18 teams including all team members.

Our findings reveal that regardless of the type of conflict, i.e. relationship or task, all conflict elicited negative affect disproportionate to the level of conflict reported. More strikingly, our results indicate a complete discrepancy between self-reported affect and physiological affect data. This highlights that future potential and importance of using biometric data when investigating affect. We advance conflict theory and affect theory by integrating knowledge from relationship psychology, which helps to see conflict and the potential impact on team performance in a novel way.

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Researcher: Nicola Anne Thomas

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Research area: Entrepreneurship and health

Parasite infection is associated with entrepreneurial initiation

Nothing ventured, nothing gained: Parasite infection is associated with entrepreneurial initiation, engagement, and performance

About a third of the world population carries a parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii (TG) that's been linked to risky behavior. We all know that there is something special about entrepreneurship, but can a parasite manipulate our behavior towards entrepreneurship? Based on epidemiological and business data representatively sampling the entire female population in Denmark for an entire decade, we observe that a TG infection is indeed associated with an increase in the probability of becoming an entrepreneur, and is even linked to venture performance. As there could seemingly be nothing more aberrant and antithetical to rational reason than parasite behavioral manipulation, we join the growing conversation on the existence of alternative individual-level underpinnings to entrepreneurship and highlight the need for more research on biological factors.

This paper has been published in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice is co-written with Daniel A. Lerner, Markus A. Fitza and Stefanie K. Johnson.

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Researcher: Carina Lomberg

Researcher: Lars Alkærsig

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RESEARCH AREA: innovation and corporate entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurial orientation: The dimensions’ shared effects in explaining
firm performance

We shed new light on the structure of the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and firm performance and how this relationship varies across contexts. Using commonality analysis, we decompose the variance in performance—in terms of the effects of innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk taking and consolidate existing conceptualizations of EO. We propose an extension of the extant theoretical views of the construct. Most notably, our research shows that firms should not blindly implement all of the dimensions of EO, or even individual dimensions based on the assumption that EO and all of its dimensions are universally beneficial. More specifically, our findings provide practitioners with a framework to help them calibrate the EO of their firm in a more fine-grained way to help them achieve superior performance. This will help firms carefully invest their limited resources and engage in activities that leverage EO in a manner that contributes to performance.

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Researcher: Carina Lomberg

Research area: IP and technology licensing

Licensing foreign technology needs local R&D collaboration

Licensing foreign technology and the moderating role of: Extending the relational view

The relational resource-based view posits that performance differences among firms can be explained not only by the possession of internal resources but also by maintaining and developing relationships with external partners. However, studies in the extant literature usually address the separated roles of various external relationships of focal firms, but the literature has not addressed how relationships with different sets of knowledge partners are related to each other and influence focal firms’ performance. Therefore, to fill this research gap, this study focuses on how technological resources acquired from one set of partners (licensing foreign technologies) may generate subsequent internal and relational rents in terms of technological innovation in the context of collaboration with an entirely different set of knowledge partners (local R&D partners). Specifically, we propose that local R&D collaborations need to be large in scale and broad in scope.

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Researcher: Jason Li-Ying

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Research area: Open innovation, open entrepreneurship and eco-system

A typology of outside-in open innovation

Dual boundary spanning—towards a typology of outside-in open innovation reflected by the Canadian context

The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning: whether an innovation idea is created internally or externally and whether an innovation process relies on external knowledge resources. This yields four possible types of innovation, which represent the nuanced variation of outside-in innovations. Using historical data from Canada for 1945–1980, this study unveils different implications of these innovation types for different levels of innovation novelty.

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Researcher: Jason Li-Ying